Saturday, August 29, 2015

The Napoleonic Wars

    Napoleon Bonaparte was the first emperor of France. He is one of greatest military leaders who rose to prominence during the later stages of the French Revolution .He fought about sixty wars .These wars are known as Napoleonic Wars. Here some wars are given from Peace of Amiens to the Battle of Waterloo:

1.      Battle of Austerlitz:
The Battle of Austerlitz also known as the Battle of the three emperors .It was one of Napoleon’s greatest victories where the French Empire effectively crushed. It was fought on December 2, 1805.

  1. Battle of Jena and Aurestadt:
The twin battles of Jena and Aurestadt were fought on October 14, 1806 on Plateau west of the river Saale in today’s Germany, between the force of Napoleon of France and Frederick William of Prussia.

  1. Battle of Friedland:
The Battle of Fried land was fought on June 14, 1807 during the war of Fourth Coalition (1806-1807). With the beginning of the war of the Fourth Coalition in 1806, Napoleon advanced against Prussia and won stunning victories at Jena and Aurestadt. Having brought Prussia to heel the French pushed into Poland with the goal inflicting a similar defeat on the Russian.

  1. Battle of Vimeiro:
The Battle of Vimeiro was fought on August 21, 1808 during the peninsular war which was part of the Napoleonic War (1803-1815).The General of the battle was Major General Jean-Andoche Junot.
  1. Battle of Corunna:
The Battle of Corunna was part of the peninsular war which was in turn part of the Napoleonic War (1803-1815). It was fought on 16th January 1809.Following the recall of Sir Arthur Wellesley after the signing of the convention of Cintra in 1808, command of British Force in Spain developed to Sir John Moore. Commanding 23000 men Moore advanced to Salamanca with the goal of supporting the Spanish armies that were opposing Napoleon. Reluctant to abandon his allies, Moore pressed on to Valladolid to attack the crops of Marshal Nicolas de Dieu Soult .As he neared, reports were received that Napoleon was moving against him the bulk of the French Army.
  1. Battle of Talavera :
The Battle of  Talavera was part of the peninsular war which was part of the Napoleonic War (1803-1815).The fighting at Talavera occurred on July 27-28, 1809.Wellesley defeated the French at Talavera in 1809 but was forced to retire to Portugal. Wellesley next constructed a double chain of entrenchments called the Lines of Torres Vedras to check the advance of French Army.
  1. Battle of Busaco:
The Battle of Busaco in the peninsular war in central Portugal with the British against the French. Busaco was a victory for Wellington. While immediately after the battle Wellington’s army continued its retreat to Lisbon.
  1. Battle of Albuera:
Richard Cavendish describes the Battle of Albuera on May 16, 1811. In relation to the numbers involved it, was the bloodiest battle of the peninsular war .The British under Wellington with their Portuguese and Spanish allies, were defending Lisbon against the French under Marshal Massena. Allied Spanish Army at Albuera in an attempt to receive the French garrison of the border fortress of Badajoz. The action was one of the utter butchery of the British infantry saving the day for the Allies.
  1. Battle of Salamanca:
The Battle of Salamanca in the peninsular war between the British Portuguese and French in Spain 22 July, 1812.From the start of the war in 1807, the allied forces of Britain, Spain and Portugal had mostly fought on the defensive. As more and more French troops were siphoned from Spain to prepare for the advance on Russia, the British position in the peninsula became strong.
  1. Battle of Waterloo :
Waterloo was the forth battle of waterloo campaign Wellington retreating after the battle  of Quarter bras in order to cooperate with the Prussia forces retreating after the battle of Ligny under the command of  Blucher. The famous Battle of Waterloo happened in present-day Belgium on 18th June, 1815. At the time Waterloo still belongs to United Kingdom of the Netherlands .When the Imperial Force army commanded by infamous Emperor Napoleon got defeated by an Anglo-Allied army referred to the Seven Coalition commanded by Duke of Wellington along with Prussian Army commanded by Gebhard Von Blucher .It marked a culminating battle campaign that ended Napoleon’s rule as a French emperor. It also marked the end of his return from exile which lasted a hundred days.

            It should be noted that England played the most important part in bringing about the overthrow of Napoleon. She was the builder of every coalition against him. She proved to be the most persistent enemy of Napoleon and very often had to carry on the war single-handed when her allies were compelled to make peace. She had enormous resources with which she helped her allies and, above all, she had the command of the seas. Her naval victories at the battle of the Neil and Trafalgar frustrated the well-laid plans of Napoleon. In the Peninsular War England took a most active and successful part and she had the chief share of the glory in the crowning victory at Waterloo.