Product Oriented syllabuses are those in which the focus is on the knowledge and skills that the learner should gain as a result of the instructions that are given to the learner. While Process-oriented syllabuses are those in which the focus is on the process the learner experiences themselves.
Every syllabus is both product-oriented as well as process- oriented. But the difference is created because of the emphasis on any one of them while designing a syllabus. In a product-oriented syllabus the emphasis is on the out-put; the concentration is towards the goal. In a process- oriented syllabus, the emphasis is on the process, the series of action is important. A syllabus is successful if it can be implemented. This implementation is the process.
Synthetic Syllabus: Synthetic syllabus is the one in which the different parts of language is taught separately and step by step in additive fashion. So that the learner’s acquisition face a process of gradual accumulation of parts until the whole structure of the language has been built up. Grammatical criterions are used to break the language into discrete units. These items are graded according to their (1) grammatical contexts (2) fluency of occurrence (3) contrastive difficulty in relation to L1 (4) situation need and (5) pedagogic convenience. Some applied linguists assume that the synthetic syllabuses should not be restricted to only grammatical syllabus rather it can be applied to any syllabus whose content is product-oriented.
Analytic syllabus is organized in terms of the purposes for which the learner is learning the language and the kind of performance that are necessary to meet these purposes.
The starting point for syllabus design is not the grammatical system of the language but the communicative purpose for which language is used. The language and content are drawn from the input and are selected and graded primarily according to what the learner’s need to do the real world communicative task. In the task, linguistic knowledge that is built through the unit is applied to the solving of a communicative problem. The content in the analytic syllabus is defined in terms of situation, topics, items and other academic or school subjects.
The distinction between the synthetic and analytic syllabus is that the former views that nature of learning is additive while later views that the nature of learning is holistic (having regard to the whole of sth rather than just to parts of it.)