The masterminds behind morpheme studies are Dulay and Burt. They fashioned a scoring scheme that awarded different point values depending upon whether a morpheme was correctly supplied in an obligating context, occupied but not well formed, or omitted altogether. They applied this scheme to their “subjects” “speech” by Bilingual Syntax Measure (BSM). Their research is an approach to the study of a learner’s competence in a language; based on the study of a learner’s total linguistic performance (i.e. what the learner is able to say and do is the language and not just the learner’s errors.